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Join date: Jul 13, 2023

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Choosing the right battery

A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that are externally connected to an electrical device. In this guide, we will cover all types of rechargeable batteries as well as non-rechargeable (alkaline) technology.


Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt-scale systems connected to a stabilized distribution network. Several different electrode and electrolyte material combinations are used, including lead acid, nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), and lithium-ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).


When selecting a battery, the following characteristics should be considered.

Battery capacity in milliampere hours (mAh) (calculated as follows).


Voltage is determined by the material used for the electrodes, ranging from 3.2 to 4v for lithium batteries and 1.2 to 2v for other batteries.


Operating Temperature.

Size and shape of the battery.

Type of use.

Price.


All batteries share two common characteristics.

Their voltage, expressed in volts (V): Rechargeable batteries are generally 12 volt batteries. For larger batteries with voltages of 12v, 24v, or 48v, using individual 2v cells intended to be assembled in series, the life expectancy is about 10 years.

Their capacity, expressed in Ampere hours (Ah): To increase it, several cells must be connected in parallel.


When you multiply the voltage by the capacity, you get the amount of power stored in kilowatt-hours (kWh). For example:A 12v - 100ah battery theoretically contains 12 × 100 = 1200wh = 1.2 kWh.


Based on these characteristics, you must choose the technology, battery type, and chemistry: lead acid, nickel, or lithium. No one battery technology is better than the other. Each type of battery has its own advantages and disadvantages, and it is up to the operator of the application requiring the battery to choose the one that best meets their requirements.


Depending on the climate (ambient temperature) and type of use (depth of discharge), batteries have a predetermined lifetime and a number of cycles. In order to prolong their life and optimize their operation, it is recommended to follow storage and use recommendations.


In order to calculate the size of the battery you need, you must calculate the expected consumption for a day and divide this total (watts per day) by the DC voltage (volts). It is not recommended to let some batteries, especially lead-acid batteries, discharge to less than 50%. To get the minimum power required, divide this result (in amps/day) by 0.5. working at 24v halves the power required compared to using 12v, and you can even divide it by 4 if working at 48v. if you have several devices running at the same time it's best to have more power.


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